Authentication

Introduction

See Understanding RESTHeart Security for an high level view of the RESTHeart security model.

restheart-security is built around a pluggable architecture. It comes with a strong security implementation but you can easily extend it by implementing plugins. This section documents the authentication plugins available out-of-the-box. You can also develop your own authentication plugins. Refer to Develop Security Plugins section for more information.

Authentication Mechanisms

JWT Authentication

JWT Authentication manages the authentication following the JSON Web Token standard.

The token is verified against the configured issuer and audience and according to the specified algorithm.

Supported alghoritms are the HMAC256, HMAC384, HMAC512, RSA256, RSA384, RSA512.

For HMAC the key configuration option specifies the secret, for RSA the public key.

- name: jwtAuthenticationMechanism
     class: com.restheart.security.plugins.mechanisms.JwtAuthenticationMechanism
     args: 
         algorithm: HS256
         key: secret
         base64Encoded: false
         usernameClaim: sub
         rolesClaim: roles
#          fixedRoles:
#            - admin
         issuer: myIssuer
         audience: myAudience

It is also possible to programmatically add extra verification steps via an Initializer. An example follows:

@RegisterPlugin(
        name = "extraJwtVerificator", 
        priority = 100, 
        description = "Demonstrate how to add an extra verifictation step "
                + "to the jwtAuthenticationMechanism",
        enabledByDefault = false)
public class ExtraJwtVerificator implements Initializer {

    @Override
    public void init() {
        JwtAuthenticationMechanism am;
        try {
            am = (JwtAuthenticationMechanism) PluginsRegistry
                    .getInstance()
                    .getAuthenticationMechanism("jwtAuthenticationMechanism");
        } catch (ConfigurationException | ClassCastException ex) {
            throw new IllegalStateException("cannot get jwtAuthenticationMechanism", ex);
        }

        am.setExtraJwtVerifier(token -> {
            Claim extraClaim = token.getClaim("extra");

            if (extraClaim == null || extraClaim.isNull()) {
                throw new JWTVerificationException("missing extra claim");
            }

            var extra = extraClaim.asMap();

            if (!extra.containsKey("a")) {
                throw new JWTVerificationException("extra claim does not have "
                        + "'a' property");
            }

            if (!extra.containsKey("b")) {
                throw new JWTVerificationException("extra claim does not have "
                        + "'b' property");
            }
        });
    }

}

Basic Authentication

BasicAuthMechanism manages the Basic Authentication method, where the client credentials are sent via the Authorization request header using the format Authorization: Basic base64(id:pwd). The configuration allows specifying the Authenticator that will be used to verify the credentials.

auth-mechanisms:
    - name: basicAuthMechanism
      class: org.restheart.security.plugins.mechanisms.BasicAuthMechanism
      args:
        realm: RESTHeart Realm
        authenticator: simpleFileAuthenticator

Avoid browsers to open the login popup window

The Basic and Digest Authentication protocols requires responding with a challenge when the request cannot be authenticated as follows:

WWW-Authenticate: Basic realm="RESTHeart Realm"
WWW-Authenticate: Digest realm="RESTHeart Realm",domain="localhost",nonce="Toez71bBUPoNMTU0NDAwNDMzNjEwMXBY+Jp7YX/GVMcxAd61FpY=",opaque="00000000000000000000000000000000",algorithm=MD5,qop="auth"

In browsers this leads to the login popup windows. In our web applications we might want to redirect to a fancy login page when the 401 Unauthorized response code.

To avoid the popup window just add to the request the noauthchallenge query parameter or the header No-Auth-Challenge. This will skip the challenge response.

Digest Authentication

DigestAuthMechanism manages the Digest Authentication method. The configuration allows specifying the Authenticator that will be used to verify the credentials.

auth-mechanisms:
    - name: digestAuthMechanism
      class: org.restheart.security.plugins.mechanisms.DigestAuthMechanism
      args: 
        realm: RESTHeart Realm
        domain: localhost
        authenticator: simpleFileAuthenticator

Token Authentication

TokenBasicAuthMechanism manages the Basic Authentication method with the actual password replaced by the auth token generated by restheart-security, i.e. the client credentials are sent via the Authorization request header using the format Authorization: Basic base64(id:auth-token). It requires a Token Manager to be configured (eg. RndTokenManager).

auth-mechanisms:
    - name: tokenBasicAuthMechanism
      class: org.restheart.security.plugins.mechanisms.TokenBasicAuthMechanism
      args: 
        realm: RESTHeart Realm

Identity Authentication

IdentityAuthMechanism just authenticates any request building an BaseAccount with the username and roles specified in the configuration. Useful for testing purposes. Note that enabling this causes the DigestAuthMechanism to fail, you cannot use both.

auth-mechanisms:
    - name: identityAuthMechanism
      class: org.restheart.security.plugins.mechanisms.IdentityAuthMechanism
      args:
        username: admin
        roles:
            - admin
            - user

IdentityAuthMechanism

    - name: identityAuthMechanism
      class: org.restheart.security.plugins.mechanisms.IdentityAuthMechanism
      args:
        username: admin
        roles:
            - admin
            - user

Authenticators

RESTHeart Authenticator

RESTHeart Authenticator authenticates users defined in a MongoDB collection, seamlessly connecting restheart-security with restheart-core.

RESTHeart Authenticator is strong and battle tested and suggested for production use.

The configuration allows:

  • defining the collection to use (users-collection-uri), the properties of the user document to use as user id, password and roles (prop-id, prop-password and json-path-roles).
  • enabling hashed password using the strong bcrypt hashing algorithm (bcrypt-hashed-password and bcrypt-complexity); note that the password is automatically hashed on write requests and that the password property is automatically removed from responses.
  • allows initializing the users collection and the admin user if not existing. See create-user option.
authenticators:
    - name: rhAuthenticator
      class: com.restheart.security.plugins.authenticators.RHAuthenticator
      args:
        users-collection-uri: /users
        prop-id: _id
        prop-password: password
        json-path-roles: $.roles
        bcrypt-hashed-password: true
        bcrypt-complexity: 12
        create-user: true
        create-user-document: '{"_id": "admin", "password": "$2a$12$lZiMMNJ6pkyg4uq/I1cF5uxzUbU25aXHtg7W7sD2ED7DG1wzUoo6u", "roles": ["admin"]}'
        # create-user-document.password must be hashed when bcrypt-hashed-password=true
        # default password is 'secret'
        # see https://bcrypt-generator.com but replace initial '$2y' with '$2a'
        cache-enabled: true
        cache-size: 1000
        cache-ttl: 60000
        cache-expire-policy: AFTER_WRITE

Simple File Authenticator

simpleFileAuthenticator allows defining users credentials and roles in a simple yml configuration file.

authenticators:
    - name: simpleFileAuthenticator
      class: org.restheart.security.plugins.authenticators.SimpleFileAuthenticator
      args:
        conf-file: ../etc/users.yml

See users.yml for an example users definition.

Token Managers

Random Token Manager

RndTokenManager generates an auth token using a random number generator. It has one argument, ttl, which is the tokens Time To Live in minutes.

token-manager:
    name: rndTokenManager
    class: org.restheart.security.plugins.tokens.RndTokenManager
    args:
      ttl: 15